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Established on 20 May 2000 in Ancona, at the Summit on Development and Security, the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative aims to promote, develop and strengthen security in the Adriatic-Ionian region, intensify cooperation among the countries of the region and provide incentives for countries in transition towards the integration processes and joining the European Union.

The AII consists of nine Members: Republic of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Republic of Croatia, Italian Republic, Republic of North Macedonia, Republic of Slovenia, Montenegro and Republic of Serbia.

The Adriatic-Ionian Initiative is implemented through a forum for exchange of political opinions, and, at the same time, a forum for achieving multilateral cooperation in multiple areas (transport, maritime affairs, tourism, education, protection of the environment and cultural heritage, development of small and medium-sized enterprises, fight against all forms of organised crime, rural development).

After gaining its independence, Montenegro became a full member of the AII on 1 June 2007.

The parliamentary cooperation framework was established in 2001 in Zadar, during the Croatian Presidency of the Initiative, and 14 conferences of presidents of parliaments of the AII have been held since. At the end of each conference, the established practice includes the adoption of joint statements, declarations, proposals and recommendations, which summarise conclusions of the conference and provide guidance for further action.

At the conference held in Belgrade in 2012, the final proposals and recommendations emphasised the necessity of establishing a broader framework of parliamentary cooperation by forming permanent delegations of national parliaments to the AII, as was the case with other regional initiatives.

Montenegro took over one-year chairmanship of the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative in June 2018.